Full text of "Comets"
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Copyright, 1868, by Phillips & Hunt, New York.
iomt CoIIcgt gtrits. ftumbtr Sfbmtg-sttr^n.
The mysterious bodies called comets possess attractions
that invest the study of astronomy with increasing interest.
These bodies, from heights immeasurable, or from depths
unfathomable, rush into view with a velocity of speed so
great as, in many instances, to baffle calculation ; and then
dash away again at nearly the same rate of speed, to thus
traverse the regions of space through thousands of years.
Comets owe their existence, motion, and continuance to the
same causes, and are subject to the same general laws as the
planets. Unlike the planets, however, they are bodies of
extreme lightness, small attractive power, little disturbing
influence; and of such strange behavior as to almost defy
I. General View of Comets.
The movements of these fiery-visaged strangers are the
subject of great interest and close study. They have orbital
motions, ranging from less than that of the earth The motion of
to more than fifty times as great as Neptune. The comets,
rate of motion varies greatly at different points in the orbit
of a comet. Nearest the sun it reaches the highest rate of
speed. At one period it comes so near that body that it
seems about rushing into it; at another time it is so remote
it would seem to be forever beyond the reach of its attractive
power, and could never be brought back to feel its scorching
heat. The extreme point in the orbit of the comet of 1680
is estimated to be twenty-eight times the distance of Neptune,
the outermost planet of our solar system, or seventy thousand
millions of miles distant from the sun. Without any warn-
ing, this body of ghostly light came, suddenly sweeping
down upon us from the heights above, almost in a perpen-
dicular line to the sun; and, approaching within about one
hundred thousand miles of that body, swept around it with
the startling velocity of ten hundred thousand miles an hour!
The comet of 1843 attained the terrific speed of one million
miles an hour as it wheeled around the sun. It approached
so near as to almost graze the luminary of day. Its temper-
ature was estimated to be forty-seven thousand times greater
than the fiercest heat of the torrid zone ! The heat received
from the sun by the comet of 1680 was estimated, from a
careful calculation made by Sir Isaac Newton, to be two
thousand times hotter than red-hot iron !
Just here the question arises, How can a body subjected to
such excessive heat escape being entirely consumed ? That
comets survive exposure to an enormously high temperature,
approach so near with such great velocity, and yet do not
plunge into the sun, adds no little to the difliculty of explain-
ing their mysterious character.
Peculiar form One rate of speed on the curve around the sun
of orbits. indicates an oval-shaped orbit or path. Comets
having this elliptical orbit return again and again, revolving
around the sun in various periods of time, according to their
distance from that body. Still greater velocity may indicate
a parabolic (a wider) or a hyperbolic (a still wider) curve,
precluding the possibility of return. Such comets evi-
dently can only rush down upon us, or up to us, and dash
rapidly around the sun, and then off into infinite space, never
to return. Therefore certain comets are but transient visit-
ors, many of which necessarily come and go without recog-
wh are no ^^^^^^ ^7 ^S' "^^ attraction of planets may either
more comets SO accelerate or so retard the speed of a comet as
^^^'^ • to change its orbit from elliptical to parabolic, or
from parabolic to elliptical. But in any case only a very
small part of its orbit can be studied by us, since the comet
can be seen only when near the sun. Many, by reason of
their dimness and small size, must entirely escape our notice.
No doubt the greater number of these bodies are invisible to
us because they come and go during the day and moonlight
nights. Because so rarely seen, the general supposition is
that there are but few comets in existence. The immense num-
contrary is true. Like that of meteors, the num- ^^^ ^^ comets.
ber is exceedingly large. No doubt they are the most nu-
merous *of all the heavenly bodies. During the Christian era
upward of five hundred have been seen by the unaided eye.
The telescope from the time of its invention has revealed
two hundred more. Taking these figures, and making due
allowance for those escaping our notice, those belonging to
our solar system must, unquestionably, be numbered by
millions. Arago, the eminent astronomer of France, places
the number at more than seventeen millions. Lambert, of
the same country, says they can number no less than five
hundred millions. Prof. Peirce says more than five thousand
II. The Tkaii^" of Comets.
By far the larger number of comets have no trains, and
are too faintly luminous to be often seen without a telescope.
These are divided into two classes : those without a nucleus,
but of uniform density throughout their whole mass; and
those having a nucleus or head, which is the brightest and
most condensed part of the comet. Comets of this latter
class are often of vast magnitude, but of extreme lightness,
and having but a small quantity of matter, as compared with
their bulk. Comets having a train accompanying the main
body constitute a third class. It is only the members of this
latter class that are generally seen by the unaided eye. The
hair-like appeai*ance of the train procured for these bodies
the name " comet," from the Greek word " coma," meaning
hair. These trains are really most wonderful. The closest
and most careful investigations with our improved astronom-
ical instruments, while definitely settling some points, have,
in the main, deepened our desire to know, and yet fallen
short of perfectly satisfactory results. However, with the
data at hand, an interesting and far from profitless study-
may be made of their composition, rapidity of formation,
Number of length, and number, or divisions. The train of a
trains. comet does not always remain single, but fre-
quently separates into two, three, or more tails. The comet of
1744 had its fan-shaped train separating into six streamers.
Its edges were very bright, while the middle was of fainter
light. Altogether it presented a most beautiful and mag-
nificent appearance. The one which so terrified Pope Calix-
tus in 1456 had a train curved like a cimeter, or rather like
the graceful form of an ostrich feather. It was this pope
who gave to the Roman Catholic Church the prayer, " Lord,
save us from the devil, the Turk, and the comet." A great
victory was claimed for the powerful pope, when the comet,
which had been duly anathematized and excommunicated,
began to recede, and soon disappeared.
In 1825 a comet appeared "which was visible for the unusual
period of one year. Its time of revolution is supposed to be
not less than four thousand years. Its train separated into
five distinct parts, spreading out to an immense distance, and
covering a large part of the heavens. The colors of these
parts were variable, producing the most striking effects.
Length of Pcrhaps the most marvelous feature of these
trains, strange bodies is the fact of cometary matter
streaming out to such enormous lengths, and yet remaining
in actual connection with the comet. Their measurement is
no mere matter of conjecture. Because of their size and
distinctness, a good degree of accuracy may be realized. A
most brilliant comet appeared in 1769, which passed within
two millions of miles of the earth. This beautiful comet,
moving with immense swiftness, was seen in London; its tail
stretched across the heavens, like a prodigious, luminous
arch, thirty-six millions of miles in length. The computed
size of that which appeared in 1811, and which was so re-
markably conspicuous, was, on October 15, according to
Dr. Herschel, fifteen millions of miles at its greatest breadth,
and at the same time one hundred and thirty millions of
miles in length. This comet far outrivaled the brilliant
comet of 1858, (Donati's,) that was forty millions of miles in
length ; and was surpassed in turn by the overwhelming
splend6rs of the comet of 1843. "A fine drawing of this
comet, as seen March 3, 1843, by C. Piazzi Smyth, Esq., at
that time assistant astronomer at the Cape of Good Hope,
now Astronomer Royal for Scotland, represents the train as
highly symmetrical, giving the idea of a vivid cone of light,
with a dark axis, and nearly rectilinear sides, inclosed in a
cone somewhat fainter, the sides of which were bent slightly
outward." The train of this amazing body streamed off to
the distance of two hundred millions of miles. " It was of
sufficient length to reach from the earth to the sun and back,
again from the sun to the earth, and nearly twenty millions
of miles over. It would have girdled the earth at the
equator no less than eight thousand times." The great
comet of 1861 was first seen by Mr. Tebbutt, at Sidney, in
Australia, May 13; by M. Goldschmidt and others, in France
and England, on June 29 and 30. The nucleus was about
four hundred miles in diameter, with a long, bush-like tail,
traveling at the rate of ten millions of miles in twenty-four
hours. On June 30 it was suggested that we were in the
tail, there being a phosphorescent, auroral glare.
M. Babinet, on May 4, 1857, affirmed that comets had so
little density that the earth might pass through the tail of
one without our being aware of it. It is a wonderful fact
that matter so thin, thinner by far than the thinnest mist,
should be able to sustain any connection with the main body
of the comet, as in the case of that of 1843, at the incredible
distance of two hundred millions of miles. But the wonder
increases as we learn the fact, that this same matter of ex-
ceeding thinness keeps pace with the nucleus or head itself
as it wheels with the frightful velocity of one million miles
an hour around the great solar orb, to sweep into the infinite
heights above, or to plunge into the depths of space below.
Eapidity of Another interesting feature of these trains is
formation. ^qq^i in the rapidity of their formation. It re-
quired but two days for the comet of 1680, which terrified
the people with its near approach to the earth, to send out a
train sixty millions of miles in length. In less than twenty
days that of 1843 produced the enormous train of two hun-
How and of dred millions of miles. As might be expected,
what produced? ^he questions, of what material are these trains
composed ? and how are they formed ? have excited great
interest, and served to stimulate investigation. It is now
generally conceded that the trains are of the same material
as the nucleus or head of the comet. In reaching this result
the larger telescopes have played a not unimportant part;
but the most valuable service has been rendered by that
modern wonder of constructive genius, the spectroscope.
Through its aid these mysterious wanderers come to be
known as largely gaseous bodies, having trains also of gase-
ous matter, only less dense than the body of the comet. This
much is certain ; but the nature of this matter or gas we
cannot always determine. We have already referred to its
extreme thinness. It is so transparent that through thousands
of miles of cometary matter the faintest star may be seen.
What can it be ? A very little of the cloudy vapor from
water obscures the vision. Hydrogen gas is too heavy and
dense, though it is sixteen times as light as air. We are
certainly not familiar with all the conditions of matter, since
none of those with which we are acquainted serve to explain
fully the ethereal, and we might almost say spiritual, form
it assumes in comets. It has been claimed that Prof. Peirce
has demonstrated "that the nucleus of the comets of 1680,
1843, and 1858 must have had a tenacity equal to steel to
prevent being pulled apart by the tidal forces caused by its
terrible sweej) around the sun." The head of the comet of
1843 was diminished by the manufacture of a train. In cer-
tain instances an appreciable diminution in the size of trains
has been discovered at successive returns. This indicates
condensation or loss. The theory that these bodies, as the
spectroscope indicates, are mainly gaseous, would permit
cometary matter to be vaporized and driven off by the sun,
as steam from a locomotive. But if wholly gaseous, would
not comets be entirely dissipated when subjected to such in-
tense heat from the sun, while under no form of compression
other than its own ? Therefore, we hold comets to be com-
posed of both gas and small masses of matter, more or less
of a liquid condition, and affording sufficient attraction to
maintain their unity, though suffering some loss by vapori-
zation when nearest the sun, and by attraction when nearest
the planetary bodies. A comet, first examined in 1818 by
Encke, was identified by him with the one seen in 1805, 1795,
and 1786. Its return has been observed ever since at periods
of 3]^ years. This comet is celebrated for having revealed,
as many astronomers think, the existence of a resisting me-
dium in the interplanetary spaces. Herschel and others dis-
sent from this view of Encke, and attribute the change in the
comet's motion to the gradual loss of its tail. The motion
of a comet's train is peculiar. The nucleus obeys the law
of gravity, apparently uninfluenced by this peculiar motion.
The material of the train first moves toward the sun, and is
then repelled from it. This evident polarity leads to the
natural conjecture that the train is due largely, if not entirely,
to electricity. Electricity is venerated by heat :
1 ;\ J 1 r ' .' mi -I Planetary bod-
it IS also produced by iriction. ihe accumula- les affected by the
tions of electric force on the sun must be incon- electricity of the
ceivably great. It must be so, because of a ^^'
temperature there so high as to be without a parallel. It
eould not be otherwise, from the enormous friction of its
ceaselessly raging elements on such a stupendous scale. This
electricity, by a process called induction, passes to other
bodies more or less remote. The electric throbs of this great
heart of the solar system are felt throughout all its parts.
Our globe is no exception, and doubtless many of its phe-
nomena may be traced to this source.
In the absence of thunder-storms, and indeed of all ordi-
nary electrical phenomena, electric currents have been known
to sweep over the entire surface of the earth, and so as to
seriously impede telegraphic operations. This is usually said
to take place at the period of the greatest number of " sun
spots,*' which is naturally supposed to be the period of the
greatest activity of the solar forces. We find a probable ex-
planation of the peculiar motion of trains in the powerful
The electrical elcctrical influence which the sun exerts in a great
influence of the degree upon the comets, no less than upon the
sun on comets, pi^^gi^g^ jj^ l^j^jg explanation we are also largely
helped toward the solution of other problems concerning
comets. To possess the key to cometary mysteries we must
understand somewhat of the sun's electrical influence over
comets. To do this we must bear in mind the twofold prop-
erty of electricity ; namely, its attractive and repelling force.
Bodies charged with like electricities repel each other ; but
when with unlike they will attract. The superior attractive
power of gravitation resident in the sun draws the comet to
him with ever-increasing velocity, until it is at perihelion — •
nearest the sun — when, from some cause, it begins and con-
tinues to recede with a velocity ever growing less and less.
The comet's retreat is due to the repellant power of like
electricities in the two bodies. The nearer the comet's ap-
proach to the sun the greater the quantity of electricity,
generated by the sun's heat, upon the surface of the comet.
At perihelion the repellant force of these similarly charged
bodies has reached such a degree, with the increase of elec-
tricity on the comet, as to overcome, measurably, the power
of gravitation, and the comet sweeps off again into space,
never to return, unless the attractive power overcomes the
ever-waning repelling force. The comet's train is due to
this electrical repulsion. The lighter portions of cometary
matter are driven off by this repelling force in a continuous
and ever-growing train as it nears the sun. When at peri-
helion the train is fully developed, and remains so until, in
receding from the solar center, it decreases as rapidly as it
developed in its approach. Although trains have been seen
at right angles to the line of motion, generally they are
turned from the sun, whether the comet is approaching or
retreating. This fact is an important one to the theory of
electrical repulsion. The projections seen in some instances
in front and at the sides of the comet, similar to the train
itself, is probably produced by the electricity of the comet.
This electricity, generated by the intense heat of the sun,
throws off portions of the comet's more attenuated or thinnest
matter, producing a hairy or brush-like appearance in the
front of the body, and around the whole nucleus. The im-
portant part played by electricity in cometary ^^^jtionai evi-
phenomena is further established by the follow- dence of eiectric-
ing considerations: The Aurora Borealis, or '^^ '° /^o^^^^s.
Northern Lights, are confessedly occasioned by electricity.
Though not so marked, yet very similar to the Boreal phe-
nomena, are the tremulous vibrations of light, and slight
changes of color, that may sometimes be seen throughout
cometary trains. In addition to this, the magnetic needle
was greatly agitated on the appearance of the famous comet
of 1843. The property of the magnetic needle, causing it to
point to the nx)rth, comes from the currents of electricity
which girdle the globe from west to east. Any natural dis-
turbance of this needle, coming from a source outside of the
earth's surface or in the atmospheric regions, we may be sure
is due to electricity. Therefore, the disturbance of this
needle by the appearance of this comet and its enormous
train favors the already well-supported theory, that elec-
tricity was largely instrumental in developing this long
appendage; and, as a subtle, mysterious fluid, pervaded the
whole wondrous length of that train. It afforded more than
a show of reason for the supposition that this " same subtle
fluid had power to leap in an instant, as it were, across the
mighty chasm between the comet and the earth, and make
itself seen and felt all over the surface of our own vast globe,
and doubtless on every other globe belonging to our family
of worlds. What a wonderful creature of the great Creator
is this invisible fluid we call electricity ! " In the display of
its amazing power we are led to marvel at the still more as-
tounding power involved in its creation. It is folly to sup-
pose it the mere product of chance. To say that it produced
itself is to rave with hopeless madness. In the existence,
wisdom, and power of God — the underived great First Cause
— only can we account for this as well as other great and
mysterious forces of both the universe of matter and the
universe of mind.
III. The Relations op Comets.
Formerly comets were regarded as the forerunners of
great events, and more particularly of great calam-
is danger to be j^ies. The ignorant masscs, and even some of the
apprehended .° J^
from comets? learned, as m the case of Fope Calixtns, were m
a remarkable degree the victims of superstitious
terror on the appearance of a comet. Even to this day they
still produce intense excitement among savage tribes, being
looked upon as precursors of famine, pestilence, and wasting
war. " They sometimes call them * the spirits of the stars,'
and employ various means to prevent the evil they are sup-
posed always to bring — wildly and violently gesticulating
toward the unwelcome visitor with fierce threats and fiercer
expression of countenance, while they shoot arrows and dart
javelins and hurl huge stones at the much-dreaded comet,
Sloping to avert the threatened danger."
Among more intelligent people of modern times supersti-
tious fear finds no place ; but the danger of a comet's col-
lision with the earth has been seriously considered. In 1832
some of the people of Paris were almost frantic with excite-
ment in consequence of the prediction that the comet " Biela "
of that date would come in contact with and destroy the earth.
At the instance of the Government the French Academy
of Science carefully estimated the chances of collision be-
tween our globe and these apparently lawless wanderers.
The report made by the great French astronomer Arago was
that out of 281,000,000 of chances there was only one single
chance for a collision. This amounts to but little more than
a bare possibility. Should a collision take place, evil results
might or might not follow. If the nucleus encountered was
in mass and solidity equal to that of Donati's comet, as esti-
mated by M. Faye and Prof. Peirce, " its impact with the
earth would develop heat enough to melt and vaporize the
hardest rocks." If the comet were composed of small mete-
oric particles, the result would be a brilliant shower, exceed-
ing such showers as we have seen only in degree. Were the
colliding body a hydrogen comet of sufficient size to encom-
pass the entire globe, it might so mingle with the oxygen of
our atmosphere as to form such an explosive compound that
the lighting of a single match would produce a mighty flame
which, in an instant, would consume every living thing on the
surface of the earth. Still further, since water is the result
of burning hydrogen gas in oxygen, this same fierce and ter-
rible flame would be as speedily followed by a mighty deluge
of water, enveloping the entire surface of our planet. If the
body of the comet were not of an inflammable nature, but
composed of noxious gases, it would poison our atmosphere,
render it unfit for respiration, and thereby entail the most
serious consequences. Were it an innoxious gaseous body,
owing to its extreme lightness it would float in or upon our
atmosphere as do the clouds, without reaching the surface of
It has been affirmed that the earth passed through the tail
of the comet of 1861, a peculiar phosphorescent mist being
Comet affect- *^® ^^^^ observablc effect. The comet of 1779
ed by Jupiter's was diverted from its course by the four moons
moons. ^£ Jupiter, and though carefully sought for it has
never since that been seen. So little attracting power did
this comet exert that the moons were not perceptibly effect-
ed, and continue in their old paths. Hence it is possible the
small quantity of matter contained in this comet was so pow-
erfully attracted by these moons of Jupiter as to be drawn
quite to, and become an atmosphere for, one or more of these
globes. It is, at least, a plausible conjecture that
conjee ure. ^^^ planet is indebted for its atmosphere to some
comet or comets of the remote past. " It is possible that the
air we now breathe, and which gently fans our fevered
brows, comes to us laden with so many rich and delicate per-
fumes from the flowers of spring, it is possible that this same
air was once careering wildly through the vast abysses of
space, a raging comet, attracting the wondering gaze of
millions of inhabitants of other world." So far as we know,
our world has not as yet suffered from these flaming sky-
utiiityofcom- waudcrcrs. An almighty and beneficent Creator
ets. upholdeth all things by the word of his power,
and can, and no doubt does, compel these bodies of threaten-
ing appearance to exercise a beneficial influence upon our
planet. Certainly they serve a moral purpose by leading us
to the contemplation of the boundless resources of our Crea-
tor. Possibly they supply our atmosphere with some neces-
sary gaseous elements, which are consumed or absorbed in
the support of animal or vegetable life. In No. 42 of this
Series mention is made of the intimate relation of meteors to
comets — a relation the most intimate as to origin, flight
through space, and service to other bodies. It is a supposi-
tion, which has great show of reason, that comets and meteors
probably furnish a portion of the fuel which aids in sustaining
the heat of the sun. Meteors, owing to the superior attrac-
tion of the sun, doubtless fall more frequently into its atmos-
phere than ijito that of the earth. The fact of the decrease
of the periodic time of certain comets looks toward their
ultimate absorption in the sun. After revolving around him
for thousands of years, comets may at last be drawn to his
surface by his superior attraction overcoming his repelling
force. Modern discoveries tend to fix upon the origin of com-
sun and the stars as the birthplaces for the comets. ®*3-
The projectile or volcanic force of the sun, and that of a
similar nature, though even greater in degree, upon the stars,
sends matter out into space so far that it may never return,
since it comes immediately under the influence of the sun's
electric or repelling force. The theory of solar and of stellar
expulsion and repulsion is the most plausible one for the origin
Comets emit a great deal of light; but, after all. The light from
they are not self-luminous. Like the moon and comets.
the planets, they shine by the reflected light of the sun. As
the comet changes its position around the sun, it exhibits
phases similar to those of the moon as it revolves around the
earth. If they shone by native light they would always ap-
pear the same, as does the sun. But at one time the comet
appears in the form of a crescent ; again as gibbous or bulg-
ing; and yet again as round or full. In the development of
these phases, however, comets differ from the moon. This
difference is determined by the moon always moving in a
fixed orbit, while comets move in all conceivable directions
— "now coming from the east and going to the west ; from
the north and going to the south ; from the south and going
to the north; and then dashing down from the heights above,
or rushing up from the depths beneath, and thus reaching
the sun from all points of the compass." Some of cometic pe-
the comets known to us are remarkable for the long "O'^s.
intervals between their appearances. These long periods
from one visit to another are owing to the immense distances
journeyed by them. This will be better understood if we
recall to mind that the path or orbit traversed by a comet
describes a very long oval-shaped figure. One end of this
oval, in some instances, is only about one hundred thousand
miles from the sun, while the other end is often many thou-
sands of millions of miles distant in the opposite direction.
Some comets visit us quite frequently. We have already
spoken of the short period of Encke's comet. Biela's comet,
which caused such fear in Paris, had a periodic time of six
years and eight months. In January, 1846, it was observed
to have separated into two parts of unequal brightness.
When last seen in that year the parts were 200,000 miles
asunder. At its next appearance they were 1,500,000 miles
apart. It should have made three revolutions since that
time, but no trace of it has been discovered since it vanished,
in September, 1852. Donati's comet of 1858 is estimated to
have a period of about 2,000 years. A period of 102,050
years is attributed to the comet of 1844. The comet of 1744
is said to have the longest period yet known to astronomers.
It requires 122,683 years for this comet to make one revolu-
tion around the sun. We have already noticed
Cometic ex- ^ ^ "^
tremesofheat the intense heat to which comets are exposed
and cold. when nearest the sun. Must they not experience
a corresponding extreme of cold when receding so far from
the sun into the depths of space? The lowest temperature
of our Arctic regions must be mild in comparison. Is it not
possible that these bodies — thinner than the thinnest vapor
known to us — are greatly condensed by this intense cold,
perhaps even to solidification ? Then, on again approaching
the sun, they are once more converted into a gaseous condition.
Ideas of space ^^ ^^^ helped to, at Icast, a faint conception of
repulsion, and at" the immensity of space from the mighty wan-
from'these wan- ^^^rings of comcts. ^ What unexplorcd regions
derers of the skies of space must be visitcd by a comet, traveling
all the time in nearly one direction from the sun, for upward
of 60,000 years ! How great must be the electric force of
the sun to send this comet so far out into the dark abysses
of space ! What wonderful power of attraction is exerted by
the great luminary of day to arrest this fugitive in his farther
flight ! This seemingly " lawless vagabond of the skies, ap-
parently subject to no law, is, nevertheless, every moment
of that flight feeling the strong grasp of its great Con-
troller, standing majestically and blazing gloriously at the
center of his great system, and at last this vagrant of the
skies acknowledges his allegiance by turning back to its ma-
terial lord, nor tarries in all the way until it has done its
customary obeisance in his burning presence^"
" The laws of nature do not account for their own origin."
— JoHx Stuart Mill.
" It is certain that matter is somehow directed, controlled,
and arranged, while no material forces or properties are
known to be capable of discharging such functions." —
" Science was Faith once ; Faith were science now,
"Would she but lay her bow and arrows by,
And arm her with the weapons of the time." — J. R. Lowell.
" As we perceive the shadow to have moved along the dial,
but did not perceive it moving; and it appears that the grass
has grown, though nobody ever saw it grow; so the advances
we make in knowledge, as they consist of such insensible
steps, are only perceivable by the distance."
"Ignorance is the curse of God, knowledge the wing
wherewith we fly to heaven." — Shakesprare.
" The whole earth is but a single mote in the star-dust
with which God's creative hand has strewn the skies."
" Overhead the countless stars
Like eyes of love were beaming,
Underneath the weary earth
All breathless lay a-dreaming."
" The twilight hours like birds flew by,
As lightly and as free ;
Ten thousand stars were in the sky,
Ten thousand in the sea;
For every wave with dimpled cheek
That leaped upon the air,
Had caught a star in its embrace,
And held it trembling there."
"Flowers are stars wherein wondrous truths are made
"Thoughts which fix themselves deep in the heart, as
meteor stones in earth, dropped from some higher sphere."
[THOTTGHT-OITTI-INE TO HELP THE MEMORY.]
1. Laws by which Comets are governed? Motion of Comets? Peculiar form
of orbits ? When Comets are seen ? Their number ?
2. Nucleus? Train? Number of trains? Length of them? Illustrations?
Theories about formation of trains ? Electrical effects ? Sun's influence ?
Disturbances on our Earth?
8. Danger? Arago's theory ? Jupiter's moons ? Atmospheric theory? Use
of Comets ? Periodical appearance ? Extremes of heat and cold ?
No. 1. Biblical Exploration. A Con-
densed Manual on How to Study the
Bil.le. By J. H. Vincent, D.D. Full
and rich 10
No. 2. Studies of the Stars, A Pocket
Guide to the Science of Astronomy.
By H. W. Warren, D.D 10
No. 3. Bible Studies for Little People.
By Eev. B. T. Vincent .. 10
No. 4. English History. By J. H. Vin-
cent, D.D 10
No. 5. Greek History. By J. H. Vin-
cent, D.D 10
No. 6. Greek Literature. By A, D.
Vail, D.D 20
No. 7. Memorial Days of the Chautau-
qua Literary and Scientific Circle lo
No. 8. What Noted Men Think of the '
Bible. By L. T. Townsend. D.D 10
No. 9. William CuUen Bryant 10
No. 10. What is Education? By Wm.
F.Phelps, A.M 10
No. 11. Socrates. By Prof. W. P. Phelps,
No. 12. Pestalozzi. By Prof, W. F.
Pheliw, A.M 10
No. 13. Anglo-Saxon. By Prof. Albert
S. n.^ok 20
No. 14, Horace Mann. By Prof. Wm.
F. Phelps. A.M 10
No. 1=;. Proebol, By Prof. Wm. F.
Phelps, A.M........... , 10
No. 16. Roman History. By J. H. Vin-
cent. D.D..,. 10
No. 17. Ptoger \sclrim and John Sturm.
Glimpses of Education in the Six-
teenth Century, By Prof. Wm. F.
Phelps, A..M 10
No. 18. Christian Evidences, By J. H.
Vincent, D.D " lo
No. 19, The Book of Booka, By J. M.
Freeman, D.D , 10
No. 20. The Chautauqua Hand-Book.
By J. H. Vincent, D.D 10
No. 21. American History. By J. L.
Hurlbut, A.M 10
No. 22, Biblical Biology, By Rev. J.
H. Wythe, A.M., M.D 10
No. 23. English Literature. By Pi of.
J. H. Gilmore 20
No. 24. Canadian History. By James
L. Hughes 10
No. 25. Self-Education. By Joseph Al-
den, D.D., LL.D 10
No. 26. The Tabernacle, By Rev. John
No. 27, Readings from Ancient Classics. 10
No, 28. Mauners and Customs of Bible
Times. By J. M, Freeman, D.D 10
No. 99, Man's Antiquity and Language.
By M. 8. Terry, D.D 10
No, 30. The World of Missions, By
Henry K. Carroll. . , 10
No. 31. What Noted Men Think of
Christ. By L. T. Townsend, D.D. . . . 10
No. 32. A Brief Outline of the History
of Art. By Miss Julia B, De Forest . 10
No. 33, Elihu Burritt: "The Learned
Blacksmith," By Charles Northend. 10
No. 34. Asiatic History : China, Corea,
Japan, By Rev. Wm. Elliot Griffis. . 10
No. 35. Outlines of General History.
By J. H, Vincent, D.D 10
No. 36. Assembly Bible Outlines, Bv
J, H, Vincent, D.D 10
No. 37. Assembly Normal Outline?. By
J. H. Vincent, D.D 10
No. 38. The Life of Christ, By Rev.
J. L. Hurlbut, M.A 10
No, 39. The Sunday-School Normal
Class. By J. H. Vincent, D.D 10
Published by PHIUIP5 & HUNT, 805 Broadway, New YorK.
By Dajjiel Wise,
1. Thomas Carlyle.
2. William Wordsworth. By Daniel
3- Egypt. By J. I, BoswcU.
4. Henry Wordsworth Longfellow.
By Daniel Wise, D.D.
5. Rome. By J. I. Boswell.
6. England. By J. I. Boswell.
7. The Sun. By C. M. Westlake, M.S.
8. Washington Irving. By Daniel Wise,
9. Political Economy. By G. M. Steele,
10. Art in Egypt. By Edward A. Rand.
11. Greece. By J. I. Boswell.
12. Christ as a Teacher. By Bishop E,
13. George Herbert. By Daniel Wise,
14. Daniel the Uncompromising Young
Man. By C. H. Payne, D.D.
15. The Moon. By C. M. Westlake, M.S.
16. The Rain. By Miss Carrie E. Dcn-
17. Joseph Addison, By Daniel Wise,
18. Edmund Spenser. By Daniel Wise,
19. China and Japan. By J. I. Boswell.
20. The Planets. By C. M. Westlake,
21. William Hickling Preseott, By
Daniel Wise, D..D.
32. Wise Sayings of the Common
23. William Shakespeare. By Daniel
25. The Stars. By C. M. Westlake. M.S.
26. John Milton. By Daniel Wise, D.D.
27. Penmanship. •
28. Housekeeper's Guide.
29. Themistocles and Pericles. (From
30. Alexander. (From Plutarch.)
31. Coriolanus and Maximus. (From
32. Demosthenes and Alcibiades. (From
33. The Gracchi. (From Plutarch.)
34. Caesar and Cicero. (From Plutarch.)
35. Palestine. By J. I. Boswell.
36. Readings from W^illiam Words-
37. The W^atch and the Clock. By Al-
38. A Set of Tools. By Alfred Taylor.
Hoino Oollog-o Sorios-
Frice, each, 5 cents. Per 100, for cash, $3 50.
Th« *' Home Coi^legb Series" wiii<;ontain short papers on a wide range of subjects —
biographical, historical, scientific, literary, domestic, political, and religious. Indeed, the
religious tone will characterize all of them. They are written for every body — for all
whose leisure is limited, but who desire to use the minutes for the enrichment of life.
Diamonds and other Precious
Stones. By Alfred Taylor.
Gold and Silver. By Alfred Taylor.
Meteors. By C. M. Westlake, M.S.
Aerolites. By C. M. Westlake, M.S.
France. By J. I. Boswell.
Euphrates Valley. By J. I. Boswell.
United States. By J. I. Boswell.
The Ocean. By Miss Carrie R. Den-
Two Weeks in the Yosemite and
Vicinity. By J. M. Buckley, D.D.
Keep Good Company. By Samuel
Ten Days in Switzerland. By H. B.
Art in the Far East. By E. A. Rand.
Readings from Cow^per.
Plant Life. By Mrs. V. C. Phabus.
Words. By Mrs. V. C. Phoebus,
Readings from Oliver Goldsmith.
Art in Greece. Part I.
Art in Italy. Part I.
Art in Germany.
Art in France.
Art in England,
Art in America.
Readings from Tennyson,
Readings from Milton. Part x.
Thomas Chalmers. By Daniel Wise,
The Temperance Movement v«rsu»
The Liquor System.
Germany. By J. I. Boswell,
Readings from Milton. Part II.
Reading and Readers. By H. C.
The Cary Sisters. By Miss Jennie M.
A Few Facts about Chemistry, By
Mrs. V. C. Phoebus.
A Few Facts about Geology, By
Mrs. V. C. Phoebus.
A Few Facts about Zoology. By
Mrs. V. C Phoebus.
Circle (The) of Sciences.
Daniel Webster. By Dr. C. Adams.
The World of Science,
Comets. By C. M. Westlake, M.S.
Art in Greece. Part II,
Art in Italy. Part II.
Art in Land of Saracens.
Art in Northern Europe. Part I.
Art in Northern Europe. Part II.
Art in Western Asia. By E. C.
Published by Phillips & Hunt, New York ; Walden & Stowe, Cincinnati, Ohio.
LU J i .^!J j^ 4— ^